International Association of Agricultural Economics

towards a prosperous, sustainable, well-nourished world

Author Guidelines

Agricultural Economics welcomes the submission of new manuscripts at any time, via our simple and secure manuscript-management system.

Use of the Online Submission Web Site

  1. The manuscript management web site offers detailed step-by-step instructions.
  2. Once the paper and supporting information are uploaded, subsequent correspondence with authors, referees and the editors through the web site will be delivered by email and also safely archived on a remote server.
  3. This system ensures that manuscripts and associated documents are handled securely, with password-protected access from anywhere in the world. A link from the site offers continuous technical support, and authors with limited internet access may also contact the journal editors directly.

Preparation of Manuscripts

  1. Articles should be written in American English. Authors are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked carefully for spelling, grammar and usage before submission. In some cases, authors may wish to have their papers professionally edited prior to submission. A number of commercial editing services are available to authors whose first language is not English, including one offered by Wiley, the publisher of Agricultural Economics. More information about Wiley’s service is available at Please note that while this service may greatly improve the readability of your paper, it does not guarantee acceptance of your paper by this or any other journal.
  2. Manuscripts can be prepared using any document-processing software, but must be converted to PDF format for submission. Conversion to PDF can be done using a wide range of software tools, from the originator of the PDF standard (Adobe Acrobat) or from other firms (such as CutePDF). Use of this standard is necessary to maintain the integrity of the paper and the anonymity of authors vis-à-vis referees.
  3. The first page of the manuscript should show the paper’s title and abstract. The manuscript should not state author names, to permit double-blind refereeing. For ease of reading, manuscripts should use wide margins, double spaced text, with all pages numbered consecutively.
  4. Author names, affiliations and the abstract will be submitted separately alongside the manuscript, in plain text for the editors’ use only.
  5. The abstract is typically on the order of 100-200 words, and should provide a concise summary of what the authors have accomplished in the paper. Abstracts can mention the paper’s motivation, but should focus on the evidence, analytical method and main results presented in the paper.
  6. The manuscript submitted for review should be all-inclusive, with references, tables and figures appearing at the end of the manuscript, and NOT in separate files. Formatting should be as in previous issues of the journal, except that tables and figures should be presented together at the end of the manuscript, with each table and figure appearing on a separate page.
  7. When reporting monetary values, the preference for a single-country, location specific study is to report in local currency units. At first use and in relevant tables clearly indicate the USD equivalent, exchange rate prevailing at the time, and the reference year. For a study that involves multiple countries or has relevance for international exchange please convert local units to an reference currency (e.g. USD, Euros, CFA Francs).

Tables and Figures

  1. In presenting data, authors should anticipate the limitations set by the size and layout of the journal. Large and complex tables, figures and maps should be avoided in the main paper, but can be included in a data appendix for use by reviewers. Authors are encouraged to prepare such an appendix, ideally including all data and model code needed to replicate the paper’s main results. Doing so will make each paper much more useful after publication. These data can be disseminated by the journal alongside the article itself, or authors can do so themselves if they prefer.
  2. Any tables and figures that are included in the main text of the paper should be numbered separately, in the sequence that they are mentioned in the text.
  3. Each table and figure should be presented on a separate page of the manuscript, with a brief and self-explanatory title. All text should be clearly legible, and all graphics and legends should be easily distinguished when printed in black and white. Tables should use horizontal lines only, with only blank space to separate columns.
  4. Notes under each table and figure should be used to explain and specify the source of all data shown.
  5. When regression results are being reported in a table, indicate the value of the estimated coefficient and report the standard error of the estimate (not the t-statistic) in parentheses directly below the point estimate. You may indicate statistical significance at standard test levels using asterisks. Similarly, a table of descriptive statistics that reports mean values should also indicate standard deviations in parentheses below the mean. Exceptions are when additional information is being provided for a set of variables (e.g. mean, min, max, std dev, n). For guidance, consult the editor or refer to a recent issue of the journal.


  1. Formulae should be composed in an equations editor where possible, to ensure appropriate spacing and lettering when printed.
  2. Equations should be presented on a separate line and numbered sequentially at the right-hand margin of the page, in parentheses.
  3. All variable names, symbols, subscripts and superscripts should be explained in the text where they are first used.


  1. Footnotes should be used sparingly. In many cases it will be possible to incorporate the information in normal text.
  2. If used, footnotes should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers, and kept as brief as possible. Equations or other complex text should not appear in footnotes, since they will be difficult to read.


  1. All sources used should be cited in the text using the author’s surname and publication year, with a complete list of references given in alphabetical order following the text of the manuscript. The manuscript should be carefully checked for errors in author's names, dates and publication details, and to ensure that all citations are in the reference list while all references listed are cited in the text.
  2. Citation style should follow the example of past issues. In the text refer to the author's name (without initial) and year of publication, followed - if necessary - by a short reference to appropriate pages. Examples: "Since Peterson (1993) has shown that ..." "This is in agreement with results obtained later (Peterson and Kramer, 1994 pp.12-16)". In referring to a personal communication the two words are followed by the year, e.g., "(J. McNary, personal communication, 1984)".
  3. If reference is made in the text to a publication written by more than two authors the name of the first author should be used followed by "et al.". This indication, however, should never be used in the list of references. In this list names of first author and all co-authors should be mentioned.
  4. References cited together in the text should be arranged chronologically. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically on authors' names, and chronologically per author. If an author's name in the list is also mentioned with co-authors the following order should be used: publications of the single author, arranged according to publication dates - publications of the same author with one co-author - publications of the author with more than one co-author. Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 1974a, 1974b, etc.
  5. Reference lists for final publication should follow the example of past issues, for example using the following formats:
    1. For periodicals
      Foster, K. A., Mwanaumo, A., 1995. Estimation of dynamic maize supply response in Zambia. Agric. Econ. 12, 99–107.
    2. For books
      Alston, J. M., Norton, G. W., Pardey, P. G., 1995. Science under Scarcity: Principles and Practice for Agricultural Research and Priority Setting. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
    3. For edited volumes
      Koo, W., Jinding, L., 1992. An intersectoral perspective on the relationship between the agricultural and industrial sectors in Chinese economic development, in M. Bellamy and B. Greenshields, eds., Issues in Agricultural Development—Sustainability and Cooperation. Dartmouth, Aldershot.
    4. For unpublished reports, departmental notes, etc.
      International Seed Federation (ISF), 2002. Estimated values of the commercial markets for seed and planting material for some countries. Accessed October 2002, available at

Data Appendix

  1. Authors of empirical papers are strongly encouraged to prepare and submit a data appendix for review and eventual publication alongside the article itself. Such a data appendix typically consists of multiple computer files archived in zip format, with one text-only file entitled “readme.txt” that provides instructions for how to use the other files.
  2. At the review stage, the data appendix should be anonymous, like the paper itself, stripped of any obvious identifying features. After acceptance, the readme file should be edited to include contact information for the authors, citation details for the paper, and any background information needed to interpret the data.
  3. The data appendix should allow replication of a paper’s main results, and in some cases it will allow re-creating of key charts and tables as well as statistical tests, estimation and simulation. The readme file should indicate what software is needed to achieve the replication. For statistical work, the data appendix should typically include a raw data file, one program to transform those data into useful variables, and often a separate program to perform testing and estimation. In a few cases, the data and model cost are combined in a single file.
  4. All variables and commands should be clearly labeled, so that they are self-explanatory to a reasonably skilled reader. Providing such a data appendix will facilitate refereeing, and will greatly enhance the value of published papers. Readers will have more confidence in each result, and will be able to build directly on the data in subsequent work, thus increasing citations and impact.
  5. A footnote to the article will indicate how the data appendix can be obtained. For widest dissemination, it should appear on the publisher’s web site alongside the published article. No assignment of copyright is involved, however, and the data can also be posted elsewhere. A few articles provide analyses of confidential data, in which case we hope to see a data appendix that presents a publishable version of the data, typically at a high enough level of aggregation to prevent recovery of individual-level information.


  1. Authors should ensure that publication of material quoted or reproduced from previous work would not infringe copyright. Brief quotations may generally be reproduced freely, but detailed excerpts and images may require written permission from the copyright holder before publication. Suitable acknowledgement must always be made for the use of others’ work.


  1. On acceptance, after typesetting the author will be asked to check the galley proofs for typographical errors and to answer queries from the copy editor.
  2. Blackwell, at its discretion, is entitled to recover from the author(s) of any paper or report published in the journal, any cost occasioned by alterations made by the author(s) in the printer's proofs other than correction of typesetting errors and essential additions which update information in the paper: the latter preferably as sentences at the end of existent paragraphs or as new paragraphs.

Offprints and Page Charges

  1. Fifty offprints will be supplied free of charge.
  2. Additional offprints can be ordered on an offprint order form, which is included with the proofs.
  3. UNESCO coupons are acceptable in payment of extra offprints.
  4. Agricultural Economics has no page charges paid by authors. The costs of operating the journal are borne by subscribers, with some additional funding from IAAE.